In Search of Sustainable Solutions
Transport Economics, Management and Policy series
Edited by Eran Feitelson and Erik Verhoef
Chapter 1: Transport and environment: from policy measures to sustainability notions and back
Eran Feitelson and Erik T. Verhoef INTRODUCTION Transportation is essential for human development. At the same time transport systems give rise to a wide set of externalities, many of them environmental. One facet of the transformation of most Western societies to post-materialist value systems, to use Inglehart’s (1977) terms, is the greater awareness of and readiness to act on environmental issues. As a result there has been a major transformation in the way environmental effects of transport are viewed and dealt with over the last thirty years. The shift in the policy arena cannot be described as resulting from any single event. Rather, it has been a process. As awareness of the environmental implications of transport has risen during the last thirty years, the policy discourse has changed too. From a discourse that centered first on growth and later on equity issues it gradually widened to include the environmental effects of transport and the possible ways to address them (Masser et al., 1992). Consequently, it evolved into a multifaceted discussion of the ways and rationales for intervention, and of the role of environmental goals relative to other goals. However, the need for concrete action has remained. In recent years the importance of transportation-induced environmental externalities has increased. This is due in part to the relative success of developed countries to bring an increasing array of emissions from point sources under control, and in part to the increase of transport-induced emissions resulting primarily from the rapid rise in the number of...
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