Edited by Raymond J.G.M. Florax, Peter Nijkamp and Kenneth G. Willis
Chapter 4: The scope of meta-analysis for transport policy impact analysis in environmental economics
Hans Kremers, Peter Nijkamp, Piet Rietveld* 1 META-ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS The last few decades have shown a rapid increase in economic activities all over the world. In the Far East, formerly underdeveloped countries like Taiwan, South-Korea or Indonesia rapidly became fast-growing economies, while in Europe the countries that make up the European Union are making progress to a far-stretching integration of their economies into one big market with the clear objective of increasing economic activities and eﬃciency. This growth trend has a deﬁnite impact on geographical mobility. The existence of an elaborate transport network is central to the development of an economy. Practically everyone demands transport on a daily basis, in terms of personal mobility or through the consumption of goods that have to be transported to him or her. An increase in economic activities imposes a higher demand for transport, and without the necessary improvements in transport giving physical access to resources, markets, jobs, education and so on, the economy stagnates and the aforementioned developments come to a halt. Transport, however, also aﬀects the local and global environment in a negative way. At a local level, the rapidly increasing use of road transport has led to substantial congestion and inaccessibility of cities while, globally, road transport especially has turned out to be an important contributor to global warming (for many details, see also Nijkamp et al., 1998). Such eﬀects inﬂuence the personal welfare of many people in adverse ways. Economists refer in this...
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