A Comparative Analysis of Sociotechnical Constituencies in Europe and Latin America
New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series
Edited by Roberto López-Martínez and Andrea Piccaluga
Chapter 10: Policies and shared values in the promotion of competitiveness: the Peruvian case
Mercedes Inés Carazo, Isaías Flit and Angel Hurtado 10.1 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES BASED ON INNOVATION1 Latin America needs to expand its economical and institutional reforms, to strengthen its research and development, to improve the knowledge and skills of its labor force, and to improve national and regional transport and communication infrastructures. (Enrique Iglesias, President of the Inter-American Development Bank) 10.1.1 Competitive Advantages The greatest competitive advantage of nations and regions lies in the quality of its human resources and in knowledge. We need people capable of creating and efﬁciently using new technologies and to apply them to our reality; creative and innovative human resources responsive to the necessities of production and to the improvement of the quality of life, to general welfare and to integral development. A basic element of competitiveness, which explains the success of leading nations and is reﬂected in the quality of life improvement, is the incorporation, generation, adaptation and permanent improvement of new knowledge and technical improvement to production. Thus, they make it more ﬂexible, obtaining higher productivity; and achieving a growing specialization in products of higher added value and technological contents. One of the fundamental characteristics of the end of the century is the growing interdependence between the capacity to generate scientiﬁc and technological knowledge and the generation of wealth. In the future, this association will gradually strengthen, resulting in the urgent need for technological development and modernization. 248 Policies and shared values: the Peruvian case 249 The main economic trends...
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