European Collaboration in Research and Development

European Collaboration in Research and Development

Business Strategy and Public Policy

Edited by Yannis Caloghirou, Nicholas S. Vonortas and Stavros Ioannides

The contributions collected in this volume focus explicitly on cooperative R & D in Europe. The first part of the book offers empirical evidence on the extent, scope and direction of this collaboration and explores the motives and problems of the participating firms, as well as the perceived benefits they have enjoyed. The second part deals with the difficult policy issues that diverse national R & D regimes create for successful cooperative research and international convergence. The extensive survey results of European firms allow the authors to compare collaborative research policies in various EU countries and contrast the policy design that has emerged in the EU with that of the USA.

Introduction

Yannis Caloghirou, Stavros Ioannides and Nicholas S. Vonortas

Subjects: economics and finance, industrial organisation, innovation and technology, innovation policy

Extract

to Part I The proliferation of a wide variety of inter-organizational cooperative agreements since the early 1980s has created the need for new definitions of cooperation (Hagedoorn and Schakenraad, 1990; Nooteboom, 1999). The term ‘strategic alliance’ was thus invented to encompass the multitude of forms these agreements have taken. According to one definition, a strategic alliance is a web of agreements whereby two or more partners share the commitment to reach a common goal by pooling their resources together and coordinating their activities (Teece, 1992). An alliance denotes some degree of strategic and operational coordination and may also include things such as technology exchanges, exclusionary market and manufacturing rights, and co-marketing agreements. Collaborative arrangements can take many forms (Hagedoorn, Link and Vonortas, 2000; Littler, Leverick and Wilson, 1998): from formal collaboration, founded on an explicit, common purpose agreed by the parties and based on explicit contracts, to informal collaborations involving more tacit and casual relationships. It may take place between and among customers, suppliers, competitors, or even between organizations that just share some common expertise. An increase in the joint projects launched by companies with public research institutes and universities has been pointed out by many scholars (Caloghirou, Tsakanikas and Vonortas, 2001; Georghiou, 1998), along with a steady growth of interfirm alliances during the 1980s (Contractor and Lorange, 1988; Mytelka, 1991; Chesnais, 1988; Hagedoorn, 2001). We focus in this book on collaboration on technological issues (Dodgson, 1993), and especially on Research Joint Ventures. RJVs are defined...