Business Strategy and Public Policy
Edited by Yannis Caloghirou, Nicholas S. Vonortas and Stavros Ioannides
to Part II Science and technology (S&T) is one area with relatively little to show in terms of harmonization and cohesion between the policies of European Union (EU) member countries. There is ample evidence that European national innovation systems (NIS) remain rather dissimilar due to historical, cultural and other factors related to the development stage and consequent needs and capabilities.1 The work underlying this part of the book demonstrates the same phenomenon in one speciﬁc area of S&T policy: cooperation in R&D. Diversity is increasingly viewed as a strength of the European Innovation System. Still, the more recent concept of a European Research Area presupposes a certain degree of cohesiveness and basic goal harmonization across member states. One way the Commission has tried to address the discrepancies – in terms of R&D funding levels, areas of focus, and speciﬁc policy tools – has been through formal Community programmes to support R&D since the early 1980s. Framework Programmes on RTD (FWPs) were ﬁrst established in 1984. They have been successive four-year programmes supporting R&D in somewhat broadly deﬁned, and yet selective, technological areas. Cooperative R&D has been the most frequent organizational mode of the RTD undertaking supported by the Framework Programmes. Cooperation involves business ﬁrms, universities, and government institutes based in more than one member country in any combination.2 The two-year research project on intra-European R&D collaboration whose results supported the discussion in Part I of this book also appraised the underlying...