Chapter 2: Poverty, Material Deprivation and Multi-dimensional Disadvantage During Four Life Stages: Evidence from the ECHP
2. Poverty, material deprivation and multi-dimensional disadvantage during four life stages: evidence from the ECHP Panos Tsakloglou and Fotis Papadopoulos INTRODUCTION The aim of this chapter is to examine the living standards of the four population groups (‘risk groups’, in the terminology used in this chapter’s tables and graphs) that are the focus of this book, in comparison with the living standards of the entire population. These groups are: retired persons (Retired), sick or disabled persons (Sick), young adults (Young adults) and lone parents (Lone parents) as deﬁned in Chapter 1. For this purpose, detailed analysis was undertaken of their average incomes, levels of poverty, housing amenities, ability to aﬀord particular durable goods and necessities of life, as well as the impact of public transfers. The analysis of the living standards of speciﬁc sub-groups within these groups is presented in subsequent chapters. Unlike the interpretations of the term ‘social exclusion’ provided by various social scientists, as outlined in Chapter 1, in the jargon of most policy makers in the EU social exclusion is used interchangeably in order to denote ‘acute poverty and multiple deprivation’ or ‘exclusion from the labour market’. The analysis described here aims to identify aspects of the risk of social exclusion that are closer to the ﬁrst of these interpretations. The data used for the analysis come from the second wave of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) that was described in Chapter 1. It can be argued that although the ECHP is much...
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