Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
Editors’ introduction This collection of essays on the theme of developing pressure indicators for Europe has been compiled as part of the Pressure Indicators Project (PIP), undertaken by Eurostat, the Statistical Ofﬁce of the European Communities. The PIP aims to produce a set of indicators describing pressures resulting from human activities, which are intended to communicate environmental information to decision-makers and a wider public without losing the scientiﬁc soundness of the original indicators. Thus each indicator should describe the pressure in a comprehensive and analytically sound way, while at the same time being easy to interpret and capable of revealing trends on an appropriate time-scale. The PIP project is divided into ten ‘policy ﬁelds’ (based on the seven themes of the Fifth Environmental Action Programme1) chosen to reﬂect the decisionmaking structure of the central institutions within the European Union, such as national and regional governments and the European Commission, which will be the focus for policy changes to improve environmental sustainability. These policy ﬁelds are: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Loss of Biodiversity, Marine Environment and Coastal Zones, Ozone Layer Depletion, Resource Depletion, Dispersion of Toxic Substances, Urban Environmental Problems, Waste and Water Pollution and Water Resources. Ten specialized institutes (SIs) corresponding to each of the ten policy ﬁelds were selected to coordinate much of the project’s work. A list of the SIs is given in Annex II. The SIs established Scientiﬁc Advisory Groups (SAGs), selected from senior natural scientists and experts in the ten policy ﬁelds...