Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
A. Markandya and N. Dale 1. THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND COASTAL ZONES POLICY FIELD It is very difﬁcult to deﬁne precisely or place clear boundaries around the Marine Environment and Coastal Zones, due to the complex and interconnected problems of this policy ﬁeld. A useful working deﬁnition used by the US Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources and quoted in the Dobrís Assessment (EEA, 1995), is: ˇˇ The part of the land affected by its proximity to the sea, and that part of the sea affected by its proximity to the land as the extent to which man’s land-based activities have a measurable inﬂuence on water chemistry and marine ecology. As an interface between land and sea, coastal regions are particularly valuable as ecosystems. Within Europe there is an exceptionally wide range of important and fragile natural coastal habitats covering arctic, temperate and subtropical climate zones. Pressure from human activities, including urbanization, industrialization, ﬁshing, agriculture, energy generation and tourism has led to increasing degradation of the coastal environment and the necessity to produce pressure indicators for this policy ﬁeld as an aid to the policy response. The multidimensional nature of this policy ﬁeld resulted in a diverse set of proposed pressure indicators in the ﬁrst-round questionnaire launched by Eurostat.1 The indicators included in the second-round questionnaire were primarily developed from those indicators that had been proposed at least ten times by the ﬁrst-round questionnaire experts. These were grouped into four broad categories: G G G...