Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
Chapter 15: Introduction
P.E.M. Lammers1 1. THE OZONE LAYER DEPLETION POLICY FIELD Ozone is a naturally occurring gas in the atmosphere, and protects the earth against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Emissions of human-made compounds containing chlorine or bromine, such as CFCs and halons, have severe impacts on the stratospheric ozone layer. The destruction of the ozone layer was ﬁrst discovered in the 1970s. Any damage to the ozone layer leads to increased ultraviolet (UV-B) solar radiation. It has been demonstrated that increased UV-B radiation is harmful to human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and also affects the climate system (UNEP, 1993; WMO, 1995). The following three chapters provide a thorough overview of the ozone depletion problem, current scientiﬁc knowledge and possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Each of the chapters in this part of the volume has been written by a recognized expert in the ﬁeld of Ozone Layer Depletion (see Introduction to the contributors). 2. RELATION TO OTHER POLICY FIELDS As outlined in the following three chapters, and as noted in the climate change chapters (Chapters 5–8), the policy ﬁeld of Ozone Layer Depletion is closely related to the policy ﬁeld of Climate Change. Since ozone is a naturally occurring greenhouse gas, stratospheric ozone depletion will result in radiative cooling. However, since CFCs and halons are effective greenhouse gases, overall effects on global warming are difﬁcult to estimate. Several of the greenhouse gases also affect stratospheric ozone depletion by stratospheric reactions or indirect temperature effects....