Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
Chapter 23: Introduction
P. Ostlund A very large number of human activities related to the production and use of toxic substances were identiﬁed and suggested as pressure indicators by members of the European scientiﬁc community. From these, 31 were chosen for a list of proposed indicators to be ranked by respondents of the secondround questionnaire.1 1. RESULTS OF THE SECOND-ROUND QUESTIONNAIRE The 15 highest-ranked indicators in the second questionnaire are presented in Figure 23.1. The ﬁgure provides the ranking of each indicator for policy relevance, analytical soundness and responsiveness. Also, the core ranking of the indicators is presented expressed as a percentage of experts who included the indicator in their top ﬁve list of essential indicators. The ranked list of essential core indicators is in general comparable to the ranking of the three quality criteria. The one clear exception to this is TX-18 ‘Emissions of dioxins by economic activity’, which is ranked lower as an essential core indicator than for the quality criteria. The reason for this is not clear but may be related to the fact that even though dioxins are known by society as a component of high toxicity, the amounts in use are low due to reduction measures that have already been undertaken. The indicators on the proposed list can be divided into two groups: those focusing on speciﬁc elements or substances, for example, emissions of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or dioxins; and those focusing on general groups of elements or substances, for example, heavy metals,...