Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
H. Fiedler and O. Hutzinger 1. INTRODUCTION As a result of our civilization, there exists a multitude of anthropogenic activities with severe impacts on the environment, ecosystems and humans. The environment also receives inputs from naturally occurring processes which may or may not release toxic compounds or severely damage the environment. Such processes include volcanic eruptions, forest ﬁres, earthquakes, ﬂoods and hurricanes. Moreover, large amounts of organic compounds, including organochlorines, such as chloromethane (CH3Cl), are formed via enzymatic processes, found in foodstuffs (aﬂatoxins, botulinus toxin, indole3-carbazole) or formed during preparation of food (for example formation of nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or in consumer goods (for example nicotine and ethanol). Before establishing concepts, some deﬁnitions should be clariﬁed, such as toxin, risk, adverse effect (damage), and the environment to be protected. 2. DEFINITION OF RISK Dose and Toxicity The old Paracelsus statement of 500 years ago is still valid. It is the dose that makes a chemical a toxin. Thus any chemical compound per se can be toxic to an organism above a critical concentration. As established by OECD, risk is deﬁned as a function of dose and toxicity; or mathematically as: Risk = f (Dose, Toxicity) Although the toxic potency of a chemical is constant, the dose or the potential of exposure to man or the environment can be reduced, for example by legislation. Moreover, to control exposure of the general population or envi222 H. Fiedler and O. Hutzinger 223 ronment, limit values, guidelines and recommendations can...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.