Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
A. Markandya and N. Dale 1. THE URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS POLICY FIELD The urban environment is both the source of a wide array of interrelated environmental pressures and the principal location of many environmental impacts. There are also great differences in environmental conditions and economic activities between urban areas across regions and countries. For these reasons the Urban Environmental Problems policy ﬁeld is perhaps the most difﬁcult to deﬁne. Furthermore, it is difﬁcult to achieve a balanced set of indicators that adequately represent the many dimensions of the problems of this policy area. In the ﬁrst-round questionnaire the complexity of pressures on the urban environment was illustrated by the range of suggestions for pressure indicators that were received. These suggestions were screened for speciﬁc relevance and the number of experts who proposed them, to arrive at a list of 30 indicators for the second-round questionnaire.1 These were arranged in 15 categories including indicators for land use (total built-up area, derelict area), urban air emissions (SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10), water (water consumption per capita), waste (municipal waste by type), energy (energy consumption by uses and sources), mobility (registered motor vehicles), noise (people exposed to noise) and health (incidence of asthma). 2. RESULTS OF THE SECOND-ROUND QUESTIONNAIRE Figure 26.1 shows the results of the second-round questionnaire for Urban Environmental Problems for the three quality questions and the core-ranking question (given as a percentage of experts including the indicator in their top ﬁve core ranking). The top ﬁve rankings...