Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
A. Comolet and A. Garadi 1. THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND-ROUND QUESTIONNAIRE The analysis of responses to the ﬁrst questionnaire1 produced a set of 31 indicators selected on the basis of the four criteria shown in Figure 32.1: pollution-emitting sectors, pressures in terms of quality and quantity, water quality parameters and types of water resources (surface/underground). The results of the second questionnaire were then used to classify these indicators Abstraction Consumption Return flow Groundwater Quantity Types of pressure Sectors Agriculture Energy Industry Tourism Transport Other Pressure Resource System Accidental Point-source Diffuse Quality Surface water Emissions Bio–Chemico–Physical Parameters Figure 32.1 Criteria for selection of water pollution and resources indicators 281 282 Water pollution and water resources Ranking (1 = very low, 4 = very high): Policy relevance Analytical soundness Responsiveness Core ranking (right scale) Pressure indicators for water pollution & water resources: ‘quality’ questions Q1–3, core-ranked Emissions of organic matter as biochemical oxygen demand % of areas where livestock density causes excess manure Nitrogen quantity used per hectare of utilized agriculture 3 Nutrient (nitrogen & phosphorus – N + P) use Pesticides used per hectare of agriculture area 75 Households’ & public utilities’ water use Self-supply of groundwater for irrigation Losses in the water supply network 2 50 Index of heavy metals emissions Wastewater collected/water use Water treated/water collected Water recycling by industry Surface-water abstraction Groundwater abstraction Industrial water uses 1 25 0 0 Figure 32.2 Results of second-round questionnaire for the Water Pollution and Water Resources policy ﬁeld in order of rank on...