Developing Pressure Indicators for Europe
Edited by Anil Markandya and Nick Dale
1 (A) HIGHEST CORE-RANKED PRESSURE INDICATORS FOR EACH POLICY FIELD Ozone Layer Depletion (Top 10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7. 8. 9. 10. Emissions of chloroﬂuorocarbons (CFCs) Emissions of bromoﬂuorocarbons (halons) Emissions of hydrochloroﬂuorocarbons (HCFCs) Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) Emissions of methyl bromide (CH3Br) Emissions of chlorinated carbons Emissions of methane (CH4) Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) Emissions of methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) Resource Depletion (Top 15) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Water consumption per capita (including groundwater abstraction) Use of energy per capita Increase in territory permanently occupied by urbanization; infrastructure; waste-tipping and quarrying Nutrient balance of the soil (nutrient input/nutrient output) Electricity production from fossil fuels (mineral oil, natural gas and coal) Timber balance (new growth/harvest) Use of mineral oil as a fuel Surface-water abstraction (for drinking water/agriculture/industry) Exceedance of ﬁsh catch quota Groundwater abstraction for agricultural/industrial purposes 1. The development of the list of 60 indicators is explained further in the main ‘TEPI’ publication, version 1 (June 1999) and version 2 (to appear in 2000); see Foreword. 319 320 Annexes 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Extraction of mineral resources (sand, clay, gravel, marl, salt, sulphur, etc.) Use of natural gas as a fuel Use of artiﬁcial fertilizers Electricity production from wind,water and solar power Electricity production in nuclear power stations Dispersion of Toxic Substances (Top 15) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14....
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