Chapter 4: Industrial ecology and cleaner production
Tim Jackson Clean (or cleaner) production is an approach to environmental management which aims to encourage new processes, products and services which are cleaner and more resourceeﬃcient. It emphasizes a preventive approach to environmental management taking into account impacts over the whole life cycle of products and services. There are clear conceptual resonances between industrial ecology and cleaner production. Both are motivated by concerns about the increasing environmental impacts of industrial economic systems. They emerged at more or less the same time (the late 1980s to mid-1990s) in the evolution of environmental management. Both have spawned their own journals and their own literature. A brief survey of this literature reveals strong intellectual overlaps between the two models. For example, the Journal of Cleaner Production (published by Elsevier Science) advertises its scope as including the following concepts: G G G G G G pollution prevention, source reduction, industrial ecology, life cycle assessment, waste minimization, sustainable development. Thus cleaner production claims to include industrial ecology within its remit, and has on one occasion devoted a special issue of the journal to industrial ecology (Ashford and Côté 1997). At the same time, the Journal of Industrial Ecology (published by The MIT Press) ‘focuses on the potential role of industry in reducing environmental burdens throughout the product life cycle from the extraction of raw materials, to the production of goods, to the use of those goods, to the management of the resulting wastes’. Without explicitly using the term, the journal’s list of...
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