Chapter 3: Foundations
This chapter turns to the foundations of trust and trustworthiness. The ﬁrst part considers the rational reasons and psychological causes of trust and trustworthiness. Reliance can be based on assurance and on trust in the strong sense. Assurance is based on control, with motives of self-interest. Trust in the strong sense is based on altruism. Altruism is likely to be limited, and hence trust in the strong sense is restricted within tolerance levels. Beyond those, one seeks control. Trust may be rational, but is also based on, and biased by, a variety of psychological mechanisms. The second part discusses the process, the dynamics of the production and destruction of trust. How does trust develop where there was none before? When does conﬂict break trust and when does it deepen it? 3.1 THE BASIS OF TRUSTWORTHINESS AND TRUST There are rational reasons for trust, based on an inference and attribution of trustworthiness. That comes close to the notions of calculus-based trust and knowledge-based trust in the literature. The analysis is normative, indicating what would be rational to do. In a more descriptive account, trust is also based on psychological causes of aﬀect, routine, lack of awareness or neglect of relational risk, and psychological phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and decision heuristics. Some of that comes close to what in the literature is called aﬀect-based trust. Question 7: The sources of trustworthiness On what is trustworthiness of people based? Coercion, self-interest, ethics, friendship, routinization? Does it go beyond self-interest...
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