Environmental Economics and Policy Making in Developing Countries

Environmental Economics and Policy Making in Developing Countries

Current Issues

Edited by Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement.

Chapter 5: Economic instruments for waste management in Brazil

Ronaldo Seroa da Motta and Daiane Ely Sayago

Subjects: development studies, development economics, economics and finance, development economics, environmental economics, environment, environmental economics

Extract

Ronaldo Seroa da Motta and Daiane Ely Sayago INTRODUCTION This chapter presents some possibilities of introducing economic instruments to improve waste management in Brazil The service of urban waste collection covers approximately 70 per cent of Brazilian households and its expansion has been at the pace of urban population growth. Moreover, less than a quarter of this collected waste is properly disposed of and treated. Municipalities are facing serious budget constraints to cope with the increasing demand on these services. Estimates of recycling levels in Brazil are shown in Table 5.1. Considering only paper and aluminium cans, the Brazilian levels are as high as those observed in most OECD countries. Table 5.1 Recycling levels in Brazil, 1997 Paper Aluminium cans Glass Recycling level as % of primary production 61 28 Office Carton 37 60 Film 15 Plastic Rigid 15 PET 21 Steel 18 Source: CEMPRE (1997). To clarify this chapter’s aims, we present the following rationale. Waste management problems can be generalised in physical terms, as: W=Y–R 107 108 Environmental economics in developing countries Where: W = total solid waste to be collected and treated. Y = total materials produced which can end up as waste. R = materials which were recycled. This chapter will not address the problems of financing the collecting and treating of W, although it recognises them as an important issue. This study, instead, is devoted to analysing and presenting proposals to reduce the level of Y and increase the level of R. In doing so,...

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