Failing to Compete

Failing to Compete

Technology Development and Technology Systems in Africa

Sanjaya Lall and Carlo Pietrobelli

This unique study draws on extensive fieldwork assessing technology systems in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe in the context of their export competitiveness. Its emphasis is on the role of technology systems in building industrial competitiveness and in this it finds deficiencies in the systems in all these countries, though there are also significant differences between them. Comparisons are made with more successful economies, particularly those of East Asia, and policy implications are drawn for the strengthening of technology support systems. Central to the book is its combination of academic analysis with a strong policy focus – policy implications are drawn for each case-study country.

Exchange Rates

Sanjaya Lall and Carlo Pietrobelli

Subjects: development studies, development economics, economics and finance, development economics, economics of innovation, innovation and technology, economics of innovation

Extract

Units of national currency per US$, nominal current rates, yearly averages 1990 Ghana Kenya Tanzania Uganda Zimbabwe Source: 1995 1200.4 51.5 574.8 969.0 8.7 1996 1637.2 57.1 580.0 1046.1 9.9 1997 2050.2 58.7 612.1 1083.0 11.9 1998 2314.1 60.4 664.7 1240.3 21.4 1999 2647.3 70.3 744.8 1454.8 38.3 2000 5321.7 76.2 800.4 1644.5 43.3 326.3 22.9 195.1 429.0 2.4 IMF, International Financial Statistics, various years. x

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