Essays in Honour of J. George Waardenburg
Edited by Servaas Storm and C. W.M. Naastepad
Chapter 16: The state of development and the environment: Challenges for the new century
Gopal K. Kadekodi 1. INTRODUCTION In a comprehensive survey of the state of development economics during the past 50 years, Jean Waelbroeck (1998) draws the following important starter for this chapter: Development economics has made remarkable progress in the past 50 years. There is greater dominance than formerly by one school of thought, but the range of that school’s research has become much broader. … Gone is the idea that development means industrialization and that the main policy problem is to manage the interface between country and city (spatial duality?). Today development is viewed as an integrated transformation, of which urbanization and industrialization are but two components. … blind imitation of northern institutions may be counterproductive. … Gone are the days when policy advice was directed primarily at planners. Policy makers are utility maximizers, too; … The new thinking is sometimes challenged by criticisms that highlight the somewhat vague concept of governance, according to which the task of economists is to help design a system of interacting state and private institutions that, led by the state, cooperate in achieving social goals. Whether solid theory will come out of this line of thinking remains to be seen. (Waelbroeck (1998), pp. 347–8. Expressions in italics have been added by the author.) Just as much as Waelbroeck has voiced his concern about the state of development economics, a large number of social and natural scientists have looked at the past and reﬂected upon it (Drèze and Sen, 1995; Nabli and Nugent, 1989; Daly and...
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