Comparing Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal and the UK
Edited by Eleni Apospori and Jane Millar
Christopher Heady and Graham Room This chapter brings together the analysis in the preceding chapters and draws policy conclusions. As most of the analysis has been organized by country, a ﬁrst step is to look for patterns across countries, and this is the subject of the ﬁrst section below. This is followed by a discussion of the policy implications of the results, at the national and the European levels. Finally, some of the methodological issues that arose in our research are summarized. CROSS-COUNTRY PATTERNS This section proceeds by ﬁrst looking at the results for each life course and risk group, in terms of both static and dynamic measures of poverty and deprivation. The links between the static and dynamic measures, and their policy relevance, are then discussed. Retired People On a static headcount basis, retired people experienced greater poverty than all adults in every country except Germany. Their poverty rates were even further above those of adults near to retirement: non-retired adults over 45. At the same time, their chances of poverty exit were slightly lower than for all adults and (with the exception of Portugal) non-retired adults over 45. These observations combined to produce a situation where retired people had a higher probability than both all adults and (even for Portugal) non-retired adults over 45 of experiencing poverty in two successive years, even in Germany. This contrast between the static and dynamic results for Germany provides an illustration of the importance of dynamic analysis in analysing the eﬀectiveness...
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