Cal Clark and Janet Clark INTRODUCTION Over the last decade or so, ‘globalisation’ has become so widely used that it may well have been transformed from a scholarly ‘concept’ to a popular ‘buzzword’. Moreover, both the scholarly and popular discussion of globalisation appear schizophrenic. For some, globalisation suggests that the new millennium (the twenty-ﬁrst century) will actually live up to its name, with greater prosperity in many nations, leading to less hierarchic relations in the business world, the spread of democracy in an historic ‘third wave’, and far fewer threats to world peace in the so-called ‘global village’. Conversely, others view globalisation as the primary driving force behind alarmingly regressive change. In particular, they cite the growing inequality and social turmoil in the developed world, the exploitation of developing nations and the subversion of indigenous cultures and values by ‘Coca-Cola capitalism’, all stemming from the decreased ability of governments to protect the public interest from corporate policy (Clark, 2001). These ‘schizophrenic scenarios’ result from the fact that globalisation has brought profound economic change throughout the world which has created many ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ both among and within societies. In particular, the developed world is undergoing a transformation from ‘Industrial Age’ to ‘Information Age’ societies, while industrialisation is spreading to many more parts of the developing world. For the last two centuries, industrialisation has been the hallmark of the most developed societies. The nature of industrialisation itself, though, has changed dramatically over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in terms of...
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