Chapter 23: Country of Origin Effect: Synthesis and Future Direction
23. Country of origin eﬀect: synthesis and future direction Narasimhan Srinivasan and Subhash C. Jain INTRODUCTION The country of origin (COO) eﬀect has been examined in the literature for at least 35 years. Hundreds of journal articles and numerous doctoral dissertations have been written on the subject. Yet we have not developed a solid theory of the COO eﬀect. Is it because researchers have pursued their work without following a common framework and assumptions? Ultimately, academic pursuits should lead to a usable framework and generalizations, and also develop guidelines attractive to practitioners. What have we learnt thus far in the area of country of origin? What direction should future research take? For quality research, empirical examination requires a theoretical base. In inductive research, past empirical investigations is the foundation that leads to new theory building. We seek to synthesize past research and set directions for future work. A conceptual framework for gaining insights into the COO eﬀect is proposed. Generalizations are presented, and an attempt is made to establish a research agenda on the COO eﬀect. As Bass and Wind (1995) note, empirical generalization is ‘a pattern or regularity that repeats over diﬀerent circumstances’ but one that ‘need not be universal over all circumstances’. Approaches include literature reviews, content analysis and meta-analysis. This study looks at the literature in major journals, books and published meta-analysis. It draws out a meaningful framework. In Bass’s (1995) viewpoint, ‘there is general agreement that science is a process...
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