Chapter 8: Spatial Distribution versus Efficiency Effects of Forest Recreation Policies Using a Regional Travel Cost Model
8. Spatial distribution versus eﬃciency eﬀects of forest recreation policies using a regional travel cost model W. George Hutchinson, Riccardo Scarpa, Susan M. Chilton and Trevor McCallion 1. INTRODUCTION While eﬃciency concerns dominate and have motivated much of the valuation literature based on travel cost modelling, distribution issues are often ignored. However, depending on management objectives, distribution issues may be deemed of similar relevance to, or even greater relevance than, total beneﬁt estimation. The objective of this chapter is to explore the equity eﬀects of a set of management policies for forest recreation using a conventional individual travel cost approach. In particular, we explore distribution issues of welfare changes derived from a stylised travel cost model of participation and site choice for forest recreation. Since the seminal work by Bockstael et al. (1987) a variety of speciﬁcations for individual travel cost models (TCM) have been developed. Destination choices decisions are often analysed by means of models based on the well established random utility interpretation of McFadden’s (1974) multinomial (conditional) logit model (MNL). Typically, these are employed to estimate the probability of the individual choosing a given destination conditional on socio-economic variables of the visiting party, and on a set of site choice attributes, including the cost of the trip. For this category of models the eﬀects of changes in the choice set attributes on population welfare measures are well understood. The spatial distribution of beneﬁts across trip origin districts can also be...
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