PREST/CRIC Studies in Science, Technology and Innovation series
Edited by Marcela Miozzo and Ian Miles
Marcela Miozzo and Ian Miles BACKGROUND This book is intended as a contribution to the emergent interdisciplinary debate on the internationalization of services. Most of the discussion has concerned public services and intensively traded mass services. In contrast, we are here paying particular attention to services that are knowledge- or technology-intensive. A clearer understanding of the process of internationalization of such services is required because it is an important part – arguably one of the most important parts – of the general process of globalization of production, distribution and innovation. It thus has implications for the international division of labour and the competitiveness of ﬁrms, regions and countries. The growing importance of the internationalization of knowledge- or technology-intensive services has resulted from three main factors. With economic development, services have become major players in national economies. They naturally command more attention and strategic action, because of their signiﬁcance to employment and economic growth. With technological change, services have become more important users of new technologies and players in innovation processes. There is a strong case that new technologies make the internationalization of some services more viable, in addition to the more conventional expectation that internationalization speeds up the pace of technological change in services. With globalization, the emergence of so-called ‘global’ ﬁrms has been as marked in services as elsewhere. Changes in the strategies of industrial multinational corporations have led to the increased internationalization of service ﬁrms, while changes in international policies through the European Single Market, the World Trade Organisation...