PREST/CRIC Studies in Science, Technology and Innovation series
Edited by Marcela Miozzo and Ian Miles
Chapter 1: The Relation between the Internationalization of Services and the Process of Innovation: A Research Agenda
Marcela Miozzo and Ian Miles INTRODUCTION Services may remain elusive in many ways, but their importance has gradually impressed itself on researchers and practitioners from a wide range of backgrounds. Issues related to both the internationalization and the role of innovation in services have accordingly attracted increasing attention from social scientists, business analysts and policy makers. Services internationalization has been the focus of much interest, in particular since the mid-1980s. At this time, the inclusion of services in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations began to stimulate statistical and analytic attention to the themes of foreign direct investment (and trade) and multinationals in services. A literature on international production in services has emerged. This draws attention to the distinctive characteristics inﬂuencing international production in services as well as to similarities with those of manufacturing. It addresses issues relating to national and international policy frameworks with respect to foreign direct investment and multinationals in services (see, for example, Enderwick, 1989, and the collection of articles in Sauvant and Mallampally, 1993). Services innovation has also been an emerging area of attention over the same period. This literature argues that services should not be regarded solely as passive recipients of innovation from the manufacturing industry. Whether owing to information technology having triggered innovation across the whole economy, or to other developments, services are sources of innovation in their own right, as well as being in the vanguard of information technology use. This literature challenges the theories of ‘postindustrial’ society (see, for...
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