Incentive-based Policies for Long-term Climate Change
ESRI Studies Series on the Environment
Edited by Carlo Carraro and Christian Egenhofer
Chapter 2: Negotiated agreements and climate change mitigation
Patrick ten Brink, Marina Morère and Jane Wallace-Jones 1. INTRODUCTION Aim of the Chapter The aim of this chapter is to present state-of-the-art insights into the actual and potential role of negotiated environmental agreements (NEAs) for climate change mitigation – whether to help meet the Kyoto targets or simply to meet national commitments independent of the Kyoto Protocol.1 It therefore spells out the key issues regarding the instrument’s use, impacts and context, and also methodologies for its assessment. The chapter will therefore give details of where the tool has been applied, and will also include an analysis of the incentives for adopting an agreement, and incentives for action within the agreement; this includes a brief review of the basic risks and rewards. Regarding the impacts, the chapter presents the available data on emissions reductions and also evaluates whether agreements offer sufﬁciently signiﬁcant impacts to be considered a serious instrument to address climate change. Furthermore, it spells out the methods for the assessment of agreements and the limitations of these methods. The chapter also assesses the linkage of an NEA to other instruments in the policy instrument portfolio, and brieﬂy addresses the question of whether NEAs can be stand-alone effective policy instruments, or whether their effectiveness can only be a result of a linkage to other policy tools within a portfolio of instruments that governments use to address climate change. Deﬁnition of NEAs When people speak of voluntary environmental agreements or initiatives, many different names and tools...
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