Rethinking the Rationales for Funding and Governance
New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series
Edited by Aldo Geuna, Ammon J. Salter and W. Edward Steinmueller
The relationship between academic research and innovation rarely stands still. For instance, a variety of indicators of science and technology have shown that in the 1990s the link developed between academic research and industrial innovation became stronger. For example, Narin et al. (1997) found there was a threefold increase in the number of academic citations in industrial patents in the US through the mid-1990s. Much of this research leads one to question commonly held assumptions that academic research is separated from industrial practice. In fact, in recent years, it is becoming increasingly common to highlight the sheer complexity and multiplicity of social interactions that link academic research and industrial practice. The patterns of interactions that bind research to practice are diverse, often subtle and inﬂuenced by a wide mixture of social and economic factors. Central players in reshaping understanding about the links between research and innovation are a number of new, path-breaking empirical studies of university and industry interactions (see Mansﬁeld 1991; Klevorick et al. 1995). Chapter 4 builds on these past empirical studies, updating some of the results from the highly inﬂuential Yale survey. The original Yale survey showed that academic research was useful to industrial research and development (R&D) managers, detailing the interactions between disciplines and industries. It demonstrated that there is considerable variety across diﬀerent industries in the way research inﬂuences industrial practice. In some sectors, for instance pharmaceuticals, the link between research and practice is tight, whereas in others the...