The McGill International Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Marian V. Jones and Pavlos Dimitratos
Emerging Paradigms in International Entrepreneurship: A Synopsis
Marian V. Jones and Pavlos Dimitratos INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP, DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIELD AND THE EFFECTS OF A NEW ECONOMY International entrepreneurship as a ﬁeld of study is not necessarily conﬁned to the internationalization phenomenon, and several authors have advanced deﬁnitions that suggest a ﬁeld of study with signiﬁcant scope for development and the establishment of parameters that are as yet undetermined. Wright and Ricks (1994) suggested that international entrepreneurship represents a new thrust for international business research concerned with the ability of small ﬁrms to become internationally competitive, a process derived from the relationship between the ﬁrm and the environment in which it operates. More recently McDougall and Oviatt (2000, p. 903) deﬁned international entrepreneurship as ‘a combination of innovative, proactive and risk-seeking behavior that crosses national borders and in so doing is intended to create value in organizations’. Emphasis here is on ﬁrm-level behaviour that creates value, crosses national borders, and in so doing extends internationalization research towards theories of entrepreneurship and the role and characteristics of the entrepreneur. Zahra and George (2002) see international entrepreneurship as ‘the process of creatively discovering and exploiting opportunities that lie outside a ﬁrm’s domestic markets in pursuit of competitive advantage’, which suggests an outward process from a domestic base encompassing creativity, innovation and opportunity recognition. Each of these deﬁnitions identiﬁes cross-border or international entrepreneurial activity as its central focus and thus implicitly positions international entrepreneurship as an extension or development of internationalization as its main antecedent...
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