Theory, Evidence and Policy
Edited by Boelie Elzen, Frank W. Geels and Ken Green
Chapter 10: Managing Experiments for Transition: Examples of Societal Embedding in Energy and Health Care Sectors
Sirkku Kivisaari, Raimo Lovio, Erja Väyrynen INTRODUCTION It has been increasingly accepted that climate change poses a world-wide threat to the environment, human life and economic development. Human activity increases the concentrations of greenhouse gas emissions which raise the average global temperature. The change of temperature can vary to a great extent in diﬀerent parts of the world. The change is estimated to lead to higher amounts of rainfall, to a rising sea level, and to a reduction of snow cover. The climate change issue and the need to curb an increase in the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption create a strong force for major changes in the energy sector. To take a sustainability issue from another societal sector, health care systems in all Western countries are struggling to ﬁnd ways to meet the new challenges related to ageing of the population. More care services for the elderly will be needed but also the quality of services calls for change in the ageing society. Emphasis in health care will transfer from external causes of diseases to biological ageing and degenerative diseases. Chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension are increasing among elderly people. The need to renew the intertwined system of services and technologies to meet the growing and changing needs is presently considered urgent. These examples show that transition to sustainability requires system innovations in many spheres of society. System innovation is a term that refers to major changes in the way societal functions are ful...
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