The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development
Edited by Carlo Carraro and Vito Fragnelli
Chapter 1: Stable International Agreements on Transfrontier Pollution with Ratification Constraints
1. Stable international agreements on transfrontier pollution with ratiﬁcation constraints1 Sergio Currarini2 and Henry Tulkens3 1. INTRODUCTION International agreements on environmental standards usually require the approval of domestic political institutions. Once an agreement is found at the international level, its prescriptions must be translated into domestic laws through a ratiﬁcation process. The fact that negotiating countries are in all respects sovereign and independent decision makers, makes ratiﬁcation a substantial element (possibly a constraint) in the decisional process. The diﬃculty of attaining the full commitment of many countries in actual cooperation problems (as, for instance, at the Rio and Kyoto Conferences on Climate Change) may be partially explained as the eﬀect of such domestic political constraints on the decisions of countries’ political leaders. The stability of an international agreement has been identiﬁed in the literature with the properties of various equilibrium concepts in gametheoretic models of cooperation. Part of this literature has looked at the possibility of ‘full’ cooperation, that is, cooperation among all involved countries. Some of these works have studied the core of cooperative games representing the decisional process at the international level (see Chander and Tulkens, 1992, 1995 and 1997; Maler 1989; and Kaitala et al., 1995). Core agreements are ‘stable’ solutions to the negotiation problem in that no coalition of countries is able to induce a preferred outcome by its own means. Other contributions have studied the possibility of the formation of smaller coalitions: see, for example, Carraro and Siniscalco (1993)...
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