The Security–Business Nexus
Edited by Gabriele G.S. Suder
Chapter 9: The Tourism Sector
Frédéric Dimanche The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. (Franklin D. Roosevelt) INTRODUCTION The various events following September 11 dealt serious blows to tourism, helping to remind us of its great importance not only to the USA, but also to all countries in the world, particularly in Western Europe. Indeed, tourism is one economic sector that has particularly been aﬀected by 09/11, the more recent terrorist attacks in Djerba (Tunisia) and Bali (Indonesia), and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The ‘war on terrorism’ resulting from the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and more speciﬁcally the conﬂict between the USA and Iraq, greatly contribute to a state of uncertainty in several world regions and economic sectors, and particularly with respect to the economic well-being of tourism. As a whole, travel and tourism has become ‘the biggest business in the world’, worth more that US$4.4 trillion a year, and it is a key economic tool for developing as well as for OECD countries. The short-term impact of the 09/11 attacks, combined with a US economic downturn, had immediate and disastrous consequences for many companies, as travellers suddenly changed their travel patterns and cancelled business and pleasure trips. Somehow, the World Tourism Organization recently reassured business observers by conﬁrming that 2002 had been a better year than expected (after a 9 per cent decline in international tourist arrivals in September–December 2001) with a 3 per cent positive...
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