Chapter 8: IndustryÂ…science relationships as enhancing regional knowledge economies: a comparative perspective from Japan and the UK
8. Industry–science relationships as enhancing regional knowledge economies: a comparative perspective from Japan and the UK Fumi Kitagawa INTRODUCTION There are new trends in industrial strategies in most of the industrialized countries, with universities being recognized as key players in generating the industrial competitiveness of regions as well as nations in the knowledgebased economy. Increasingly, cooperation among industry and universities is encouraged by many national governments to develop cutting edge technology and to promote technology transfer and innovation. It is noted that although some powers and responsibilities related to science and research policy are devolved to regional governments, national (and transnational) governments tend still to retain signiﬁcant inﬂuence. Most conceptual and empirical studies about ‘industry–science relationships’ (ISRs) are made at national level (for example OECD, 2002). However, it is important to analyse ISRs at different levels, namely, at local, regional, national and international, with interactions between them, within a framework of ‘multilevel governance’ (MLG) (Cooke, 2002, 60–61). National or transnational governments are good at setting frameworks for action but less so at detailed strategy in contexts with signiﬁcant geographical variation, so ‘joining up government actions’ involving horizontal and vertical governmental relations (Cooke, 2002, 8) will be necessary, at transnational level where appropriate. The chapter highlights the different aspects of national ISR policies between the two countries, namely the UK and Japan, and then examines in each country the extent to which the development of ISRs is embedded in regional economies in relation to government’s...
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