Chapter 14: Motivations and Drawbacks Concerning Entrepreneurial Action: A Study of French PhD Students
Jean-Pierre Boissin, Jean-Claude Castagnos and Bérangère Deschamps Over the last few years the number of hours dedicated to the entrepreneurial awareness of students in schools and universities has greatly increased. It is true that France was responsible for a certain delay in this domain (see, for example, action run in Quebec; Menzies, 2002), especially as during the last 10 years the number of new ventures has declined or is stabilized (270 000 new ventures by year). It is important to remember that the number of creation was over 304 000 in 1990 and over 280 000 in 1995. The French statistical institute (INSEE) includes new ventures from scratch, re-creations and takeovers in the global figures. The number of creations from scratch is increasing (178 000 in 2002, 200 000 in 2003). The latter (200 000) represents the known goal of the French government with the Dutreil Law (2003). This good score can be influenced by this law or can be explained as a response of the economic recession: creating one’s own firm is the way to create one’s own job. Due to this fact, the French state has tried to implement measures (economic and financial) aimed at stimulating and motivating the entrepreneurial mind and at stimulating innovation and research. The sixth measure of the Department of Industry and Research’s innovation plan (2002) highlights the need to develop an entrepreneurial course aimed at encouraging the entrepreneurial mind. One type of action involves the creation of entrepreneurial centres on French...
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