Technological Superpower China

Technological Superpower China

Jon Sigurdson, Jiang Jiang, Xinxin Kong, Yongzhong Wang and Yuli Tang

Technological Superpower China explores how China is becoming a technological superpower within the global economy by integrating its national R & D programmes with the innovation systems of national and international corporations. Jon Sigurdson provides a thorough and comprehensive analysis of China’s knowledge foundation in technology and R & D following its dynamic march forward in the early 1980s.

Chapter 2: National Reform Programmes and Human Resources Development

Jon Sigurdson, Jiang Jiang, Xinxin Kong, Yongzhong Wang and Yuli Tang

Subjects: asian studies, asian innovation and technology, innovation and technology, asian innovation, innovation policy, technology and ict

Extract

1 In its science and technology policy, China has moved from one extreme of total national control of all resources to a flexible and open system which allows a great amount of freedom for foreign companies and domestic actors. However, since the early 1950s, national programmes for science and technology (S&T) development have received great attention, together with raising the level of human resources. An overview of the current innovation structure in China can be seen in Figure 2.1. EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL POLICY IN CHINA A first major educational reform was implemented in 1952 when all universities were basically transformed into teaching universities, while most research was organized into research institutes directly controlled by line ministries. Most teaching universities were controlled by relevant ministries, such as the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. Many ministries organized their own research institutes and research activities, which were normally referred to as academies, for example the Academy of Telecommunications. Following the Soviet model, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was established in 1949 and soon became the main bastion for advanced scientific research, with a total employment that eventually reached more than 120 000, including also a large number of service functions. While industrial and technological development was formulated and implemented under formal five-year plans, specific long-term plans were formulated on several occasions for the development of science and technology. During a short period, 1958–59, the planned economy was completely disrupted by China’s frantic effort...

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