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Edited by Wolfgang Maennig and Andrew Zimbalist
Chapter 7: Support For and Resistance Against Large Stadiums: The Role of Lifestyle and Other Socio-economic Factors
Gabriel M. Ahlfeldt, Wolfgang Maennig and Michaela Ölschläger 1 INTRODUCTION Local resistance against mega sporting events may play a determining role for the probability of winning a bid (Baade and Sanderson, ch. 6 in this volume). In order to be able to treat the target audience efficiently, it is thus of utmost importance for the officials responsible for the bid to know about motives and socio-economic backgrounds of the resistant and the supporting milieus. As noted in the so-called ‘death-of-class’ debate, a one-dimensional view on society along an income ray falls short in accounting for the full diversity of personal tastes, attitudes and values, and consumption preferences. Therefore, new concepts have been developed to classify individuals not only by social class or strata, but on the basis of a broad range of values, attitudes or leisure patterns (Veal, 1993). As a case study which might lead to generalizations towards other sport issues such as mega events, we investigate at the voting-precinct level the 2001 stadium referendum on the Allianz-Arena in Munich where residents were asked about the public provision of a site and the accompanying subsidies for infrastructure for the new home venue of the professional football teams FC Bayern Munich and 1860 Munich. Assuming rationality, the clear majority vote for the project indicates that at city level, public subsidies are overcompensated by a substantial increase in utility of the majority of residents. As there is hardly compelling evidence for positive economic impact of stadium projects (Matheson, 2008), the...
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