Chapter 12: Social protection, governance and the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in East Asia
This chapter draws together the economic, political, social and cultural dimensions associated with social protection and governance and seeks to establish the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in four East Asian societies. The research includes: the democratic, developmental states of Taiwan (the Republic of China, ROC) and South Korea; Hong Kong, a ‘ neo-liberal market economy’ without full democracy and a special administrative region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China, in the context of‘ one country, two systems’; and China, one of the most dynamic economies in the world since its transformation to ‘market socialism’ and export-led growth in the 1980s. Thus, all four societies have experienced substantial change relatively recently, with both continuity and transformation in social protection and governance practices and processes. Given the size of and variations within and between these four societies the empirical focus is on the cities of Beijing, Taipei and Seoul and the city-state of Hong Kong. The case study locations are not construed as isolated, impermeable locales, but as key sites of contestation in the formation of specific patterns of governance, welfare and inclusion, and in the context of urban, rural and regional differentiation. They represent a context through which to explore and integrate the contradictions, contrasts and dynamics of globalization, governance and social welfare as they have emerged in each society.
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