New Actors and Modes of Governance in a Globalizing World
Edited by Susan L. Robertson, Karen Mundy, Antoni Verger and Francine Menashy
Chapter 13: Why Girls’ Education Rather than Gender Equality? The Strange Political Economy of PPPs in Pakistan
Shailaja Fennell Introduction The need to ensure Education For All (EFA) and the challenge of the Millennium Development Goals have resulted in growing support for partnerships with the private sector as a vehicle that will increase the current provision of education during the first decade of the twenty-first century. The importance of PPPs has become particularly evident in the last decade, with both international and national initiatives directed towards expanding educational partnerships in finance and provision to ensure access and quality within the education system (Patrinos 2005). The term ‘partnership’ is taken to imply that more than one sector – for example, government and a nonprofit or for-profit collaboration – provides a service. By implication, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are engagements between the state and non-state actors, who could be private corporate, nonprofit or philanthropy. International institutions such as UNESCO have shown a preference for cross-sector collaborations to provide education, leading to a new category of Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships in Education (MSPE) which explicitly bring in collaborations between civil society organizations and other sectors, whether state or non-state actors (Draxler 2007). The MSPEs have been particularly attractive as they allow a pooling of skills and resources from the private sector as well as civil society organizations (Genevois 2008). The increasing number of schools using either the PPP or the wider ranging MSPE framework during the last decade, with their growing enrolment of children, is regarded as a success. The first measure of success is that providing an alternative to the state permits households...
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