A Comparative Study of Inspection Regimes in Times of Change
Chapter 4: The Shift to Occupational Health and Safety Process Standards in Australia
INTRODUCTION Health and safety at work in Australia has been explicitly regulated since 1873. While it is true to say that Australian OHS regulation from the outset has been heavily inﬂuenced by the approach taken in the UK, since the 1980s it has to some extent exhibited some distinctive Australian characteristics. This chapter introduces OHS regulation in Australia. After providing a brief outline of the Australian political, economic, social and industrial relations framework, the chapter then explains how, from the late 1970s, Australian OHS regulation moved from a reliance on detailed, technical speciﬁcation standards, to a ‘general duties’ model, which increasingly required duty-holders (particularly employers) to adopt risk-management approaches. From the late 1980s, as part of a national uniformity process under the auspices of the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), OHS regulations and codes of practice underpinning the general duties were largely recast to require duty-holders to follow risk-management processes when addressing speciﬁc hazards. From 2004 several OHS statutes explicitly required duty-holders to implement riskmanagement processes when complying with the general duties. Legislative reforms beginning in the 1970s also gave OHS inspectorates administrative sanctions (improvement and prohibition notices, and in some jurisdictions infringement notices) and recently the power to accept enforceable undertakings from duty-holders. The traditional right to prosecute was strengthened by signiﬁcantly raising the level of ﬁnes available to the courts, and lately, by vesting some courts with non-pecuniary sanctions such as the power to order court-ordered publicity and OHS projects. 65 Columns...
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