Towards a Seamless Connection between EIA and EMS
Edited by Anastássios Perdicoúlis, Bridget Durning and Lisa Palframan
Chapter 3: Link Framework Analysis
´ Anast´ ssios Perdicoulis a The way we currently deal with environmental impacts of development or investment projects is somewhat fragmented. At the study phase, or ex-ante, the predominant instrument is environmental impact assessment (EIA). After implementation, or ex-post, the predominant instrument becomes environmental management systems (EMS). While both instruments are established with well known procedures, their integration remains a signiﬁcant challenge. It is difﬁcult to argue that the ex-ante and ex-post procedures should remain independent, since they are both dedicated to the same object – that is, environmental impacts of development or investment projects. If we argue that the two instruments have different perspectives – for instance, regarding time – then they should be at least complementary to each other. If we argue that EIA and EMS take different perspectives on their common object of interest – for instance, environmental accounting versus ﬁnancial accounting – then they should be taken together, at least to juxtapose their respective perspectives. In just over a decade, the attempt to link EIA and EMS has been manifested in a number of publications – for instance, Barnes and Lemon (1999); Ridgway (1999); Eccleston and Smythe (2002); S´ nchez and Hacking (2002); Perdico´ lis a u and Durning (2007). The existing attempts contain various degrees of formality and strength of the link, and collectively elevate the issue to a higher level: What could be the framework, or general method, to establish the link between EIA and EMS? There are many ways to search for link frameworks, as illustrated in Figure...
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