The Community Innovation Survey (CIS) was first developed in the early 1990s. It arose from a shared view by researchers and policy makers that understanding the extent and distribution of innovation activity required direct and economy-wide indicators of innovation inputs and outputs at the firm level. These included tangible and intangible investments in innovation, outputs in terms of sales of new or changed products, plus data on such topics as collaboration, and knowledge flows. The first CIS has evolved into the largest innovation survey in the world based on the number of participating countries and the number of responding enterprises. It is conducted in the 27 member states of the European Union (EU) plus Norway and Iceland, and is used in many of the candidate states to the EU, such as Croatia and Turkey. The 2008 CIS, the most recent survey for which data are available, obtained responses from 196 000 enterprises in the EU-27 countries. The CIS has influenced the design of innovation survey questions in other countries, including Australia, Canada, China, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland and the USA.
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