Chapter 8: If and When: Towards Standard-based Regulation in the Reduction of Catastrophic Risks
JOBNAME: Alermanno PAGE: 1 SESS: 7 OUTPUT: Tue Sep 6 13:22:57 2011 8. If and when: towards standardbased regulation in the reduction of catastrophic risks Alfredo Fioritto and Marta Simoncini1 8.1 WHAT CAN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES DO TO REDUCE CATASTROPHIC RISKS? Natural disasters happen. At least once in lifetime everyone can expect to be a protagonist or a spectator in a catastrophic event. The problem is that nobody can predict when calamities are going to strike. What public authorities can reasonably do is to provide regulations to prevent major impacts on population and goods as much as possible. Emergency risk regulation represents a relevant regulatory methodology that combines the risk approach with the possibility of resorting to extraordinary measures in case a disaster occurs. More precisely, it aims at mitigating the impact of a catastrophe by providing preventive instruments of protection in the immediacy of a disaster. Therefore, it combines both risk and emergency approaches to crisis, in an attempt to guarantee regulation for speciﬁc relevant cases. Since risk regulation offers protection beforehand, and emergency regulation generally applies in the aftermath, emergency risk regulation works in the immediacy with a speciﬁc preventive goal. In this way, legal orders try to ﬁll the gap in their resilient system of protection by improving the safeguard against risks and distributing the consequences of their occurrence with the aim of mitigating the impact of disasters. Many case studies demonstrate the signiﬁcant connection between risk approach and emergency tools in the...
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