Policies, Plans and Metrics
Edited by Tan Yigitcanlar, Kostas Metaxiotis and Francisco Javier Carrillo
Chapter 15: Transforming: Turning Knowledge Cities into a Knowledge Region
Caren Heidemann, Klaus R. Kunzmann and Klaus Wermker INTRODUCTION: KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, KNOWLEDGE CITIES, AND KNOWLEDGE REGIONS – MUCH RHETORIC, LITTLE ACTION? In the 21st century knowledge has become a precious local and regional resource for post-industrial territories, which were severely affected by the economic and social implications of structural change. To compensate for the loss of industrial monopolistic power, and to remain competitive in a world economy, the new global division of labour forces cities and regions in Europe (and beyond) to develop knowledge as a local and regional resource. Consequently, preparing for a knowledge society has become the new political challenge. An abundant number of AngloAmerican, German and French publications (for example, Meusburger 1998; Matthiesen 2004: Kunzmann 2008; Matthiesen and Mahnken, 2009, Roost 2010; Kaube 2009; Yigitcanlar 2010; Brake 2010; Kujath 2010) and special issues of journals (for example Hilpert 2006; Carrillo et al. 2010; Chapain et al. 2009; Revue urbanisme 2010; Matthiesen 2009) is covering the challenge. To come from knowledge and awareness to action requires engagement at all tiers of governance (Kunzmann 2004a, 2004b; Stifterverband 2009; Ingallina 2010; Charles 2010). In Europe, where higher education is still a domain of the public sector, it depends on policies and strategies at four or even five tiers of government, from the local and regional, to the national and European tier. As a rule, policies at higher levels of planning and decision-making target knowledge institutions and their respective environments by promoting innovation and research. Thereby the spatial dimension of developing the...
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