Research Handbooks on the WTO series
Edited by Tracey Epps and Michael J. Trebilcock
Chapter 3: Conformity assessment procedures
How do we know that a product meets a particular technical regulation or standard? The obvious answer is through testing – either the manufacturer tests the product, or the buyer or a third party performs tests. This is conformity assessment in its simplest form. Most would agree that testing has useful purposes – for example consumer or environmental protection. How though can we be sure that conformity assessment procedures do not become unnecessary barriers to trade? This is a more difficult question. Let us assume that we are dealing with the import of toy dolls.
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