Climate change and modification of freshwater ecosystems and watersheds are likely to affect the availability of global water supplies (Bates et al. 2008; UNDP 2006; UN-Water 2007; WWAP 2012). Population growth and economic development, coupled with rising scarcity of water, have also led to increasing costs of water supply development and threaten the physical availability of water in many of the world’s major river basins (Hoekstra et al. 2012; Vorosmarty et al. 2012; WWAP 2012). A further complication in global water management is that many countries share their sources of water, as river basins, large lakes, aquifers, and other freshwater bodies often cross national boundaries. Such transboundary water sources are important for global supply; for example, two out of five people in the world live in international water basins shared by more than one country (UNDP 2006).
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