Chapter 14: The Knowledge, Learning and Innovation Process: A Poultry Cluster in the Western Region of the State of Parana, Brazil
Jefferson Andronio Ramundo Staduto, Knut Ingar Westeren and Clarissa Pereira Junqueira Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to discuss knowledge, learning and innovation processes of poultry slaughter and processing companies located in the western region of the state of Parana, Brazil. We will also analyse the learning mechanisms of companies, as well as attempt to understand the collection and dissemination flows of innovative activities developed by the companies. Benefits from clusters are based on the idea that proximity generates advantages to participating companies. External economies resulting from the effects of knowledge flowing into the industry are generated from the concentration of companies that benefit from specialization in a location, also known as MAR transfers, due to work of Marshall (1920), Arrow (1969) and Romer (1986). The poultry slaughter and processing industry in the western region of Parana state in Brazil takes place in a rural region far from the influence of metropolitan regions and has, therefore, few advantages that are associated with urban economy productive externalities (c.f. Jacobs, 1969). In this particular case, our research suggests that the industry takes advantage of MAR effects. According to Silva and Silveira Neto (2007), in the MAR approach there are basically three reasons to explain the industrial concentration in a given geographic area: (a) existence of a labor market with specific skills; (b) offers of intermediate inputs at a lower cost and higher variety making the industry more efficient; and (c) information, knowledge, and learning flows more easily due to the geographic...
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