Variation Across Sectoral Systems
Edited by Franco Malerba and Richard R. Nelson
Franco Malerba and Richard R. Nelson 1.1 INTRODUCTION This book examines the processes of technological and organizational learning in five different economic sectors: telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, software, semiconductor and agro-food, in several different developing countries: China, India, Brazil, Korea, Taiwan and others. The chapters presented here are part of a larger programme of studies – the Catch-up Program – concerned with the examination of a range of variables affecting the ability of countries behind the technological and economic frontiers to ‘catch up’ with the leaders, in particular the roles of indigenous and multinational firms, and of non-firm actors like universities and public labs, how IPR regimes affect catch-up, the government policies that are effective in supporting catch-up, and other important variables. The five sectors examined in this book represent a wide range of cases according to various classifications. They include a science-based sector: pharmaceuticals; two sectors where product design and engineering are important for competitiveness: semiconductors and telecommunications; a service sector of a specialized supplier type: software; and a traditional sector: agro-food. The evolution of these sectors has been examined in a variety of different countries, ranging from those that started their catching up quite early (such as Korea and Taiwan), to those which are now becoming major protagonists of economic development (such as China and India). These countries differ very much in terms of size of domestic market: in some of these countries (such as China, India and Brazil) the size of the domestic market has been a major target for firms,...