Table of Contents

Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development

Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development

Elgar original reference

Edited by Stuart J. Smyth, Peter W.B. Phillips and David Castle

This book is a compendium of knowledge, experience and insight on agriculture, biotechnology and development. Beginning with an account of GM crop adoptions and attitudes towards them, the book assesses numerous crucial processes, concluding with detailed insights into GM products. Drawing on expert perspectives of leading authors from 57 different institutions in 16 countries, it provides a unique, global overview of agbiotech following 20 years of adoption. Many consider GM crops the most rapid agricultural innovation adopted in the history of agriculture. This book provides insights as to why the adoption has occurred globally at such a rapid rate.

Chapter 15: Risk assessment frameworks in the multilateral setting

Lee Ann Jackson

Subjects: development studies, agricultural economics, development studies, economics and finance, agricultural economics, environment, agricultural economics, biotechnology, environmental sociology, innovation and technology, biotechnology


International trade agreements uniformly recognize that countries have the right to take actions to protect domestic health or environmental safety even when these actions will have direct or indirect effects on trade. Indeed, to the extent that imports can act as a vector for particular risks, interventions to manage risk are likely to restrict trade. The challenge for multilateral trade rules is to find the appropriate balance between constraining a country's ability to use measures for protectionist ends while also ensuring that they maintain the right to protect the health of their citizens and their environment. Since the early years of the GATT (1947) multilateral trade rules have included some constraints on the ability of countries to use health as a justification for implementing trade-distorting policies. Nevertheless over time as successive trade rounds reduced tariffs and more attention was focused on the potential impact of non-tariff measures, it became clear that the existing disciplines embedded in the GATT did not adequately limit health-related non-tariff measures. During the Uruguay Round (UR) negotiators were struggling to develop disciplines on non-tariff, health-related measures that would not interfere with the basic right of states to protect the health of their citizens and their environment. With respect to certain types of health risks, negotiators agreed on a solution that recognized the important role played by science in distinguishing between authentic measures implemented to manage risk and measures imposed with protectionist intent.

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