A Built Economy in Education, Sustainability and Regulation
Edited by Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin and Antonia Madrid-Guijarro
Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin and Antonia Madrid-Guijarro Over the last four or five decades, advanced economies have been confronted to tremendous changes and challenges. Adopting a global or macro-view can help in identifying social and economic stylized facts. Audretsch and Thurik (2000, 2001) and Thurik (2011) distinguish two polar economies according to which economic stylized facts can be reinterpreted and reordered. The managerial model articulates economic growth around mass production, specialization, certainty, predictability and homogeneity, allowing the full play of economies of scale. The model of the entrepreneurial economy articulates economic growth around a variety of needs, novelty, turbulence, innovation and functioning in networks, allowing the full play of entrepreneurial flexibility. By observing recent social and economic trends in advanced economies, including European economies, one may consider that a transition from a managerial to an entrepreneurial economy has been taking place since the late seventies/early eighties. The factors and mechanisms for the transition to take place are numerous. However, Stam (2008) identifies three main sources that may be evoked to explain the emergence of new entrepreneurial opportunities: ● Technological changes, which are important sources for entrepreneurship opportunities, especially referring to activities linked to information and communication technologies and to biotechnologies. It is apparent that certain technological evolutions are fundamental, in particular the development of data processing technology and its applications to manufacturing (Julien and Carrière, 1994). The robot, as was noted early by Camagni (1985), presents three fundamental advantages in today’s economy. It can multitask, i.e. it can be programmed...