A Built Economy in Education, Sustainability and Regulation
Edited by Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin and Antonia Madrid-Guijarro
Chapter 9: Creative Problem Solving Method in Organizational Innovation
Fernando Cardoso Sousa, Ileana Pardal Monteiro and Antonio Juan Briones Peñalver INTRODUCTION Innovation within the framework of a knowledge-based economy goes far beyond the linear or chain linkage models that have been used in innovation theory to explain innovation processes in high-tech knowledge industries. Here innovation is seen as a social, spatially embedded, interactive learning process that cannot be understood independently of its institutional and cultural context (Lundvall, 1992; Cooke et al., 2004). Strambach (2002) suggests that the interdisciplinary view of innovation systems is concerned with understanding the general context of the generation, diffusion, adaptation and evaluation of new knowledge, which determines innovativeness. It follows that the focus is on nontechnical forms of innovation as defined above. Common characteristics of the different approaches to innovation, identified by Edquist (1997), include (1) innovation and learning at the centre, (2) a holistic and evolutionary perspective, and (3) an emphasis on the role of institutions. The increasing interdependence of technological and organizational change is a significant feature of systems of innovation, which means that technological innovation and organizational innovation have become increasingly important. These are combined with more diverse knowledge requirements which include not only technical know-how, but also economic, organizational and sociological knowledge and competencies. The second reason for the increased interest in non-technical innovations is associated with the connection between organizational innovation and the corresponding learning capacity. The acceleration of change that is part of the globalization process means that organizational learning processes are more and more important for creating...
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