Chapter 2: Regional Innovation Systems in China: An Analysis of Industry–Science Linkages in the Bohai Bay Area
2. Regional innovation systems in China: an analysis of industry–science linkages in the Bohai Bay Area Ulrike Tagscherer, Henning Kroll and Xin Luo INTRODUCTION The Bohai Bay Area is one of the three main economic regions of China. It includes the provinces surrounding Beijing, but many different definitions of the area can be found. In this chapter we concentrate on the situation in the region formed by Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and define the Bohai Bay Area as these three regions plus the provinces of Liaoning and Shandong. Traditionally Beijing has been the key centre of academic excellence within China. Today a great number of top national universities and research institutes are located in Beijing. In terms of entrepreneurship, however, greater Beijing has been among the laggards, with the local industrial structure and mentality long dominated by the headquarters of large state-owned firms, such as the national telecommunication providers and the national oil industry. While these firms are responsible for a substantial amount of the R&D expenditure accounted for in China, their management practices are still to be adapted to the requirements of modern innovation management, and the efficiency of their in-house research remains disputed. Besides these firms, the innovative capacities of the local business sector remain weak, which is worsened by the fact that Beijing and Tianjin lack any relevant hinterland. While the activities in Shanghai are complemented by the development of staunchly entrepreneurial Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Hebei plays a subordinate role with respect to all innovation-related...
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